ASTM E84 Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials
The ASTM E84 test is a standard of the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) that measures the burning properties, or fire resistance, of building materials that may be exposed to flames using the Steiner tunnel chamber apparatus. Results obtained from this test are used by code officials in the acceptance of interior finish material for various applications, including wall and ceiling applications in commercial buildings.
The scope of testing involves either mounting a test specimen to a substrate (adhered mounting method) or laying a specimen upon wire mesh (unadhered mounting method) to mimic an actual installation. After the specimen is secured, it is subjected to gas flame for ten minutes with a steady rate of air flow. This test establishes the specimen’s flame spread index and smoke developed value. The flame spread index measures the flame growth across the surface of the specimen by recording both the time at which the test specimen ignites, and the time at which the flame’s maximum distance is reached. The smoke developed value measures the amount of smoke generated by the test specimen as it burns. The results from the test are recorded and the specimen is classified according to three categories, with the rating of Class A or I being the most fire resistant category.
Class A or I
Flame Spread Index of 25 or less, Smoke Developed Value of 450 or less
Class B or II
Flame Spread Index of 26 to 75, Smoke Developed Value of 450 or less
Class C or III
Flame Spread Index of 76 to 200, Smoke Developed Value of 450 or less
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